This timely book brings together expert scholarly contributions based on individual and institutional experiences of gender inequality in Europe and the USA. Featuring key empirical insights, contributors explore the ways in which gender produces differences in opportunities across STEM subjects in universities.

Leading authors in the field investigate and propose strategies to improve gender equality in academic environments by focusing on how to overcome indifference, cultural resistance and backlash. This book not only demonstrates the reality of women’s networking experiences in STEM in different geographical and institutional contexts but provides evidence of the effectiveness of specific measures introduced to combat inequality in science and innovation.

Enlightening and provocative, this book introduces key insights and critical questions for researchers of gender inequality in science and innovation. This book will also be vital for researchers and students of entrepreneurship as the need for a firm interrogation of the causes and consequences of gender inequality in business grows.


Contributors: M.C. Agodi, S. Bagchi-Sen, N. Baines, R. Biancheri, N. Buzás, S. Cervia, G. Chapman, L.D. Edmunds, H. Etzkowitz, L. Foss, F. Ghahramani, J.. Gottwald, C. Henry, N. Hewitt-Dundas, S. Huszár, L. Kawano, L.M. Kehl, C. Kemelgor, H. Lawton Smith, J. Le Roux, C. Leggon, R. Lund, P. McGowan, C.L. McNeely, V. Meschitti, L. Messina, A. Micozzi, F. Micozzi, B. O’Gorman, A. O’Neill, M. Panton, I. Picardi, A. Poulovassilis, S. Prónay, P. Rogerson, S. Rosser, K. Seely-Gant, J. Shockro, K. Sohar



Foreword by Sally Hardy xvii

1 Introduction: pipeline break 1
Henry Etzkowitz, Helen Lawton Smith, Colette Henry and
Alexandra Poulovassilis

2 Being an early career academic: is there space for gender
equality in the neoliberal university? 16
Viviana Meschitti
3 Becoming a professor requires saying ‘No’: merging equality
and quality agendas in a Norwegian gender balance project 35
Rebecca Lund
4 The National Science Foundation’s ADVANCE programme:
issues for senior compared to junior academic women scientists 58
Sue Rosser
5 Using the embedded case study approach to analyse the
leaky pipeline phenomenon in academic careers 82
Silvia Cervia
6 Feminization of the medical profession 106
Rita Biancheri
7 Resistance to women in academic medicine 128
Laurel D. Edmunds

8 Networking, gender and academia: an ecosystems approach 146
Colette Henry, Helen Lawton Smith, Viviana Meschitti,
Lene Foss and Pauric McGowan
9 Academic support for female entrepreneurs: the positive
lasting effects of learning networks 168
Aisling O’Neill and Bill O’Gorman
10 Gender perspective in mentoring relationships: a case study
Ilenia Picardi and Maria Carmela Agodi
11 Gender and international collaborations in science and
technology community building and policy agenda setting:
an integrated analytical approach 215
Connie L. McNeely and Katie Seely-Gant

12 Gender differences in the commercialisation of research:
a study in UK universities 242
Helen Lawton Smith, Viviana Meschitti, Jeanne Le Roux,
Mark Panton, Ning Baines, Alexandra Poulovassilis and
Colette Henry
13 Unfolding the factors affecting female scientists’ intentions in
off creation: a Central European case study 261
S.ndor Huszár, Szabolcs Prónay and Norbert Buzàs
14 Gender diversity in R&D teams and its impact on firm
openness 282
Lisa Messina, Gary Chapman and Nola Hewitt-Dundas
15 The entrepreneurial intention in female university students:
an Italian case 305
Alessandra Micozzi and Francesca Micozzi
16 Gender, race and entrepreneurship in the United States 328
Cheryl B. Leggon
17 Trends and determinants of women in patenting in the
United States 348
Sharmistha Bagchi-Sen and Peter Rogerson
18 AUTM Women Inventors Committee: working to close the
gender gap in university patenting 361
Kathleen Sohar, Forough Ghahramani, Jennifer Gottwald,
Linda Kawano and Jennifer Shockro
19 Gender equity and equality: resistance and advance in
academic science and innovation 380
Henry Etzkowitz, Carol Kemelgor and Leila Maria Kehl

Index 405