Background: Studying prosociality in children is a complex but relevant issue related to the qualitative development of human interactions. The main objective of the present study is to identify the psychosocial factors that most promote or inhibit the adoption of prosocial behaviours among children. Method: In Spring 2021, a survey was conducted amongst primary school children through a structured paper questionnaire. The data analysis has been carried out through bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Path analysis has been used. Results: The results highlight the role played by the parental education level, the perception of positive and negative emotions, the adherence to gender roles and the involvement in cyberbullying actions in predicting prosocial tendencies among children. On the other hand, adopting prosocial behaviours affects the screentime as well as the devices’ interference in face-to-face interactions and the attitude towards school. Conclusions: The results are relevant and useful for the study of trends in prosocial behaviours among children. Family education level, individual status, peer interactions and social conditionings are variables that highly influence this multidimensional phenomenon. Further research is needed, including the definition of new measures and indicators concerning the context where children live and interact with others, with the aim of designing interventions aimed at facilitating relational well-being of children.